Wednesday, 20 August 2014

Disease Management in Guar seed ( Guar Gum ) Crop

This year guar seed ( guar gum ) cultivation area has increased in India. This is mansoon time and temperature is going down toward the normal temperature. Difference between day and night temperature is very low. Sunshine hour are very low due to cloudy climate. These type of conditions are favorable for the disease attack . Role of plant protection from disease and pest attack is very important at this stage of crop in guar seed ( guar gum ) cultivation .

Guar cultivation, Guar gum cultivation  in india
Guar gum cultivation  in India
Noramlly there are type of disease attack in guar one from bacteria and another from Fungus. Control major of each type of disease are same in guar seed ( guar gum ) cultivation. There are &&&  major  disease of Guar

(i) Bacterial Blight :-
There will be black spot on  leaves of Guar . in favorable condition it can damage up to 80-90% corp. It spread very fast . preventive measure is important to control this disease. Always go for crop rotation. Control
Farmer must go for regular spray of bactericide like Streptocycline @ 5 gm / 100 Liter water or Plantomycine @ 50gm /100 Litre or Agromycine @ 30 gm /100 Litre .

( ii ) Root rot or Stem rot :-
The root and stem will start rotting. Farmer should go for application of Zineb / Mencozeb-0.2% 2gm / Liter or any other available fungicide.

(iii)  Wilt Disease :-
This disease is caused by Fusarium monolifonne. The pathogen is soil- borne and, therefore, its damage is of localized nature. It causes infection to the base of plants including roots and seedlings. The roots show dis-colouration and plant wilts. Poor emergence of seedlings is the first symptom of the disease. The seedlings rot before or soon after emergence.      
1. Mixed croping of guar with sorghum reduces the damage up to 55 per cent.
2. Addition of organic manures also reduces the disease incidence.
3. Seed treatment with Agrosan GN or Thiram or Capta.

(iv) Antharacnose :
This disease is caused by Colletotncum capsici. The disease is more severe in high rainfall subtropical to temperate areas than in tropical areas. The fungus is seed -borne and symptoms may start as early as in seedling stage. The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are black, sunken, crater like cankers on the pods, stem or cotyledons. The lesions remain isolated by yellow -orange margins. They give out a dull salmon conloured ooze from the centre when humidity is very high.    
1. Use healthy seed
2. Avoid excess watering
3. Give wider spacing
4. Use hot water treated seed
5.Spray fungicides like Dithane M -45 or Dithane Z- 78 at the rate of 2 kg in l000 litres of water per hectare.

(V) Powdery mildew :
This disease is caused by Oidium ~pp. White powdery growth occurs on leaves, spreading to cover the stem and other plant parts. In severe cases, the entire plant dries up.
1. Dusting with sulphur powder
2. Spraing with systemic fungicides Benlate or Bavistin and Calixin gives effective control of powdery mildew.
3. Sowing healthy seed after treating with Thiram.
4. Follow a crop rotation to reduce the soil- borne innoculum of the fungus.

(vi) Leaf spot
This disease is caused by Myrothecium roridum. Dark brown round spots appear on leaf. In case of severe infection. Several spots merge together and leaflets become chlorotic [/B]and usually drop off. If plants are infected in the early stages of growth, there may not be any flowering.
Spray with Dithane Z- 78,0.2% at the interval of 15 days, twice or thrice.

( vii  ) Blight
This disease is caused by Xanthomonas cyamophagus. The disease is characterized by irregular, sunken, red to brown leaf spots surrounded by a narrow yellowish halo. Several spots coalesce to from irregular patches. The spots may also develop on pods.
1. Grow resistant varieties .
2. Treat the seed with thiram at the rate of 3 gm/kg seed. Also adopt hot water treatment at 560 C for 10 minutes.
3. Eradicate affected plants and burn them.

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